Monday, July 27, 2020

Fear or Phobia of Haunted Houses

Fear or Phobia of Haunted Houses Phobias Types Print Fear or Phobia of Haunted Houses By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Updated on July 21, 2019 Chuck Ortego / EyeEm / Getty Images More in Phobias Types Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment In This Article Table of Contents Expand Definition Fear vs. Phobia Types of Phobias Treatment Impact of Specific Phobias View All Back To Top Is there a name for the specific phobia that refers to a fear of haunted houses? Is this a fear or a phobia, and what is the difference? How are specific phobias such as this handled? Definition There is no official phobia name for the fear of haunted houses. That said, some people have coined names which resemble the true names of other phobias. For example, you may hear the unofficial term hauntophobia. While many people develop this fear when they are young, most people outgrow it with time. What happens if you dont? Fear vs. Phobia Most of us get a little frightened by a horror movie or even visiting a haunted house exhibit for Halloween. So how can you know if your fear is simply a normal fear, or instead, is a phobia? A fear of haunted houses is different from having a phobia about haunted houses. Being afraid of the haunted house is part of the fun. However, a specific phobia of haunted houses or any other object is a debilitating anxiety disorder that can disrupt ones life and get worse over time if not treated. Both fears and phobias can have similar symptoms, including dizziness, heart palpitations, nausea, shortness of breath. With phobias, however, these symptoms are more severe, and unlike normal fears, there is often a preoccupation with the object or situation. In deciding whether you have a fear or a phobia about haunted houses, consider these two things: The Severity: How intense is your fear? Are you afraid to enter a haunted house exhibit or are you frightened of even driving near a place where there may be a haunted house exhibit? Are you a little nervous in your home (or a hotel or another persons home) late at night when you hear strange noises, or do you completely change your plans so that you dont stay in the suspect home?How much time you spend thinking about your fear. Do you think of your fear each year at Halloween, or do you feel the fear even when you think of your fear (do you fear your thoughts of thinking of your fear?) How to Tell the Difference Between a Fear and a Phobia Types of Phobias In deciding if a fear of haunted houses is a true phobia, its helpful to define the type of phobias which are most common. There are three primary types of phobias: Social phobias: Social phobias involve a fear of certain social situations.Agoraphobia: Agoraphobia is a type of phobia in which a person has a fear of becoming trapped or unable to leave a situation.Specific phobias: Specific phobias are those in which there is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. Specific phobias come in four basic types: fears of something in the natural environment (such as tornadoes), animal-related fears (such as the fear of snakes), medical  fears (such as the fear of blood), or situational (such as the fear of driving). Is It a Specific Phobia or Agoraphobia? A phobia of haunted houses could be a specific phobia (a fear of a specific object or situation) or agoraphobia (fear of being unable to escape to a safe place when you begin to have a phobic reaction. Treatment In general, the treatment of a specific haunted house phobia is easier than some other phobias. It is easier to stay out of potentially haunted houses (at least usually) than it is to avoid a thunderstorm. For someone without a phobia of haunted houses, the potential treatment of this phobia may seem easy, at least if it is not ones residence that is felt to be haunted. Since a phobia is an irrational fear, it doesnt simply work to say dont worry. That said, a good therapist can be very beneficial in helping a person recognize that their fear is irrational to help her overcome it. There is not a specific treatment regimen for people with haunted house phobias, but there are treatment approaches for other specific phobias which are likely to help. Some treatments for specific phobias include: Medications: There are several medication options for people with specific phobias.Psychotherapy: Mental health therapy for phobias, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, can be helpful for those with specific phobias. Of note, is that some of the therapies often used for specific phobias may not be necessary or even ethical with regard to the fear of haunted houses. Even single session therapy has been found to be helpful for youth with specific phobias. Therapies such as exposure therapy and flooding, which essentially expose the person to the feared object may not be necessary. But counter-conditioning, an approach in which people are taught to react to the feared object or situation in a new way by practicing relaxation techniques could be a good choice.Alternative therapy: Therapies such as hypnosis or herbal supplements have not been studied to the degree that other approaches have, but for some people, alternative therapies for phobias may be helpful if combined with the other treatment approaches above. Impact of Specific Phobias While many people may find some of the specific phobias, such as that of haunted houses amusing, it is not a laughing matter for those who suffer from these fears. Specific phobias can be a source of embarrassment and leave a person feeling isolated and out of control. One of the more difficult ?emotional aspects of phobias is that they are life-limiting in this way. If you have a specific phobia, its important for your family and friends to understand phobias. You may have loved ones telling you that you simply should not be afraid, but as with other phobias ranging from the fear of snakes to the fear of bridges or hurricanes, simply saying you should not be afraid is ineffective. If that worked, you would not have a phobia. You should check out tips and ideas on living with specific phobias.

Friday, May 22, 2020

American Society For Aesthetic Plastic Surgery - 1706 Words

What would we change about our bodies if we could? Our face, our thighs, or our hips? What about our eyes or our lips? Would we change everything? If given the chance, more than sixty percent of people would endure cosmetic surgery in the hopes of achieving their â€Å"ideal† form, according to a survey conducted by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. In our nation, society has taken full control over body image. Not just any body image, though, our body image. Recently, bodies have been the favorite subject of our culture. These bodies are plastered to every major advertisement, the ones paraded down runways, and cast for the lead in television. These are the bodies that diet and exercise articles say you can have for the time, effort, and patience. These are the bodies surgeons say can happen with a lump sum and a few weeks of recovery. These ideal bodies have plagued our nation in a way that nothing else has. These are the bodies that sixty percent of people dream of having, but don’t. Bodies are becoming the number one priority in our life, but at what cost? Today, the emphasis placed on body image is so widespread that children of even younger ages are suffering. When asking around, I discovered that a close friend of mine had a niece, eight years old, who was already concerned with whether she was â€Å"too fat† or not. It may seem a little far-fetched but think about it. Everything a child is exposed to highlights other children with slim bodies. In televisionShow MoreRelatedAmerican Teen Cosmetic And Plastic Surgery1432 Words   |  6 Pages American Teen Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery Plastic and cosmetic surgeries have become a persisting issue in The United States, with the steady advancement of social media and technology being exposed to teens, many are falling victims to the country’s perception of standard beauty and resorting towards surgical procedures features that are not considered to be attractive among the general public. The United States makes it very easy for teens to proceed with aesthetic surgical proceduresRead MorePlastic Surgery1364 Words   |  6 PagesPlastikos â€Å"Despite the popular misconception, the word ‘plastic’ in ‘plastic surgery’ does not mean ‘artificial,’ but is derived from the ancient Greek word ‘plastikos,’ which means to mold or give form† (Schnur and Hait). What was once used to help reconstruct the faces and bodies of wounded soldiers is now used to aesthetically create new faces and bodies around the world. The motive for surgery is changing. Statistics show that plastic surgery is becoming increasingly more popular among men, womenRead MoreIs Cosmetic Surgery Worth The Risk?1304 Words   |  6 PagesIs Cosmetic Surgery Worth The Risk? In today society cosmetic surgery has become more and more common. Some people see this operation as a way to improve their appearance. Often caught up in the advantages of plastic surgery such as boosting their self-image, and/or improving their physical attraction, they fail to realize the negative effects of cosmetic surgery. The truth is cosmetic surgery is not always successful, so people should be ready to accept the risks of this operation, particularlyRead MoreCosmetic Surgery: A Quick Fix? Essay1252 Words   |  6 Pageswas once a surgery performed primarily to restore, is now used to enhance a person’s face and body. Cosmetic surgery, which is said to have been â€Å"used more than 4,000 years ago to treat facial injuries† (Fresh Faces) is now considered a common activity among any kind of person. This surgery first gained popularity in the 1910’s after World War I, among soldiers with shattered war faces in need of repair. Later, it became a popular t rend among women, who were mostly from high-class society, and thenRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On The Marriage Of Plastic Surgery And Social Media Essay960 Words   |  4 Pages Mills, D. C. (n.d.). The Marriage of Plastic Surgery and Social Media: A Relationship to Last a Lifetime. Retrieved April 09, 2016, from http://uh7qf6fd4h.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.comrft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journalrft.genre=articlerft.atitle=The Marriage of Plastic Surgery and Social Media: A Relationship to Last a Lifetimerft.jtitle=Aesthetic Surgery Journalrft.au=Camp, Steven Mrft.au=MillsRead MoreCosmetic Surgery : The Risk Of Enhancing Beauty1328 Words   |  6 Pages Bascom 1 Gerniva Bascom English 1101-105 Mrs. Karen M. Holley 28 October 2014 Cosmetic surgery : The Risk of Enhancing Beauty Cosmetic Surgery has become popular over the years due to the advertisement of celebrities who embrace their surgery to refine their beauty. For example, an article by Anthony Elliot, he labels cosmetic surgery as Drastic plastic: The rise of cosmetic surgical culture; Celebrity obsession: Fame, fortune and faking it; Want-now consumerism:Read MoreAnalysis Of The Article Teens Under The Knife By Kaitlyn Ali And Tiffany Lam1351 Words   |  6 PagesIn the article entitled Teens Under the Knife written by Kaitlyn Ali and Tiffany Lam readers are informed on the possible risks that are exposed to teens who have cosmetic surgery. Ali and Lam state, There are many risks in plastic surgery, such as permanent numbness, infections, blood clots, and even death (par. 9). The developing bodies of teens are still changing which could lead to altering the effects or future displacement of the surgical procedure. The article states, Because teens Read MoreCosmetic surgery is a globally wel l-known term, which is undertaken to alter and enhance human1000 Words   |  4 PagesCosmetic surgery is a globally well-known term, which is undertaken to alter and enhance human self-imageand esteem.Cosmetic surgery is different from all other forms of surgeries and is a treatment for â€Å"want† rather than for â€Å"need†. Along with gaining popularity due to social obsession, it also creates health risks due to invasive surgery. This essay will argue for government control of cosmetic surgery in the areas of advertisement, medical malpractices and human welfare. Media advertising industryRead MoreEssay about The Good, Bad, and the Ugly of Plastic Surgery548 Words   |  3 PagesPlastic surgery is more popular than ever. According to the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS), 43,172 plastic surgery procedures in the UK were carried out in 2012. In general, individuals consider plastic surgery to improve physical features. However, before opting for something as drastic as plastic surgery, people should calculate the pros and cons of it to accurately assess the risks and benefits. Plastic surgery, when performed by an expert surgeon for the right reasonsRead MorePlastic Surgery: Why Is so Popular? Essay1307 Words   |  6 PagesPlastic surgery is medical process through which people can make their physical aspect look better. There are two major kinds of plastic surgeries: cosmetic and reconstructive. People are and have always concern about their body image and the perspective that other could have about it. Therefore, people are always looking for the solution, which most of the time end up being the plastic surgery. Where these procedures originated? Moreover, how do we get to the actual point of plastic surgery? Clearly

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Corruption Is A Form Of Dishonest Unethical Conduct

Corruption is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.[1] Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement Corruption is an improbity or decay in the decision-making process in which a decision-maker consents to deviate or demands deviation from the criterion which should rule his or her decision-making, in exchange for a reward or for the promise or expectation of a reward, while these motives influencing his or her decision-making cannot be part of the justification of the decision. Bribery is the act of giving money, goods or other forms of recompense to a recipient in exchange for an alteration of their behaviour (to the†¦show more content†¦A third party, known as a White Glove, may be involved to act as a clean middleman. Specialist consultancies have been set up to help multinational companies and small and medium enterprises with a commitment to anti-corruption to trade more ethically and benefit from compliance with the law. Grease money is money that is paid to an official to facilitate the rapid processing of bureaucratic paperwork. Such a payment is known as a grease or facilitating payment, and the legality of such payments varies, depending on the laws that govern the activities of the official and the person or company offering the payment. Some people consider these payments to be a form of bribery, since they involve offering money to a public official with an expectation of a result, while others argue that they are only used to expedite a task that will be performed anyway, whether or not funds are offered. As such, it is simply a cost of doing business in some parts of the world. Extortion is a crime in which one person forces another person to do something against his will, generally to give up money or other property, by threat of violence, property damage, damage to the person’s reputation, or extreme financial hardship. Extortion involves the victim’s consent to the crime, but that consent is obtained illegally. Employment fraud is an attempt to defraud people who are seeking or performing employment by giving them a false hope of better employment, oftenShow MoreRelatedEthical And Moral Aspects Of Unethical Practices1641 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Unethical practices by organizations in the oil sector are frequently increasing as the pressure to compete and succeed compels them to ignore the ethical and moral aspects of their practices and decision-making. In order to maximize value for its shareholders and gain profitability, some oil companies willfully engage in unethical practices. Companies like Halliburton and Shell have made the headlines of many newspapers due to the unethical practices they engaged in. In May 2003Read MoreCase Study And Reaching The End1580 Words   |  7 Pagesthoughts were integrity, corruption, greed, standing up for your beliefs, corporation power, and reforming policy. Putting myself in this situation made me, explore my personal values and ask myself what I would do. I identified several facts that I will discuss with you throughout this case study: 1. Coleen Colombo was approached by a male wholesaler and attempted to bribe her. 2. Colombo emailed the regional vice president of operations to report the wholesalers conduct. 3. Colombo resigned fromRead MoreQuestions On Ethics And Ethics Essay800 Words   |  4 Pagesto or dealing with morals or the principles of morality. 1.8.2 Unethical practices Lacking moral principles or unwilling to adhere to proper rules of conduct. 1.8.3 Forms of Unethical Practices 1.8.3.1 Bribery According Black s Law Dictionary, bribery is the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. 1.8.3.2 Corruption Misuse of public power (by elected politician or appointed civilRead MorePolice Corruption: Time to Get Rid of Crooked Cops Essay1653 Words   |  7 PagesCarpenter,  Flagrant Conduct: The Story of Lawrence v. Texas Serve and Protect are common words associated with police officers, however some law enforcement officers taint the honor and integrity of the job. Police Corruption is a serious problem affecting nearly every city across the country and world. Curbing police corruption is a tall order; however, improving the recruitment and training process and internal controls can bring this issue to an abrupt stop. Forms of corruption and the blue codeRead MoreThe Corruption Of Absolute Power1174 Words   |  5 PagesMatthew Lee Mrs. Wong ENG 3UAA-a 22 July, 2015 The Corruption of Absolute Power People say that there is a major difference between justice and corruption, but where is the fine line between good and evil? Corruption can be interpreted as dishonest conduct by those in power. There are those who believe that corruption is just as long as it is serves a benefit for the common good. William Shakespeare’s Macbeth demonstrates the effects of living in a corrupt society and how the people rebel againstRead MoreEthical Ethics Of An Ethical Corporation Is Not An Oxymoron1645 Words   |  7 PagesAn ethical corporation is not an oxymoron. History is littered with tales of deceit and corruption. Human conduct towards ethics in today’s workplace is an important issue; recent headlines show consequences of unethical behavior on both companies and employees. Contained within the basic code of ethics in the workplace are words like, trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, (Chatov, 1980). Consider questions like, is it ethical to take office supplies from work for home use, or isRead MoreThe Concept Of Corporate Social Responsibility Essay1696 Words   |  7 Pagesthe company could get more innovated idea, which can reduce production costs, improve the interests of the company. The Meaning Of Ethics In Business According to Pearce Robinson (2014), business ethics is the moral principle that guides business conduct, how the company management operation, how to make business decisions, and how to treat people, and the same principles that determine a person s behavior also could be applied to business (Pearce Robinson, 2014). In business, there are many differentRead MoreThe Law Enforcement Job When Interacting With Citizens Essay1880 Words   |  8 PagesPolice Corruption When it comes to ethics this is a major part of any law enforcement job when interacting with citizens. Ethics is the moral principles that govern a person’s or groups behavior. In order to put ethics in a reality perspective, it is when a person is faced with a decision. When picking a decision, they can choose the right way of doing things based on how they were trained and their past experiences or go against their training and life experience. When doing something in an unethicalRead MoreManagement Antifraud Programs and Controls7356 Words   |  30 Pages.................. 16 OTHER INFORMATION.............................................................................................. 17 Attachment 1: AICPA CPA s Handbook of Fraud and Commercial Crime Prevention, An Organizational Code of Conduct ...................................................... 18 Attachment 2: Financial Executives International Code of Ethics Statement.... 22 5 INTRODUCTION Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior to misappropriationRead MoreEthics in Construction Industry4564 Words   |  19 Pageseasy to lose track of what is right. The way the world is going, it requires a complete and much deserved effort from any business or professional if success is expected. I the midst of the struggle to become the best, there is an opportunity for unethical practices to emerge and hurt the industry. For the building and designing professions, the incalculable value of human life demands nothing less than the highest moral considerations from those who might risk it otherwise. Engineers, architects,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Language Loss Free Essays

string(73) " a verb that must be put to work in order to define it \(Blomley: 566\)\." As we increasingly realize that our own self-destruction is inevitable in the destruction of the planet, the insular notion of Western modernity as the height of human progress is finally being questioned. However, the resultant paradox is that although we realize the resultant flaws of depending on one form of progress, the only alternatives that we could turn to are dying off of the face of the earth. Thus the global trend of language loss is an issue incredibly worthy of long overdue attention; it may in fact be our last meaningful alternative to rescue the plight of humanity’s survival. We will write a custom essay sample on Language Loss or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a repository of knowledge, an expression of culture, and a symbolic embodiment of a way of life, the loss of a language speaks for itself. Although some Aboriginal languages are on the brink of extinction in Canada, regrettably, not many people are listening to the last cries of the voices that are quickly vanishing. I will explore the reasons why this is the case. Firstly I will delve into the roots of language, as a vehicle by which the essence of each particular culture comes into coherence in the material world and how its culture’s level of conceit that sustains its insularity. The history of Western culture, as a product of European colonialism and industrial capitalism, clearly exemplifies that its essence and more importantly its arrogance, is fundamentally at odds with a harmonious relationship with the natural world, currently leading to its own detriment. With this colonial mentality in mind, a second aspect I will explore is the stark alternative to this one way of thinking that is exemplified the in the culture of the Squamish people of Vancouver. Thus thirdly, the settlement, industrialization, and current urbanization transforming Vancouver, is arguably augmenting the divide between both ways of being, perpetuating the self-destruction of all people who are at the mercy of the dominant culture’s conceit. Thus I will argue that in contrast to Vancouver’s Aboriginal people’s way of life, the current level of arrogance sustaining the dependence on Western modernity will ultimately, inevitably be the demise of humanity. It is undeniable that language, like all things that humanity has created, is ultimately an invention of natural world. As a watershed of imagination, language tries to make sense of the world and may be understood as the symbolization of the human thought in trying to grapple with the nature of existence. Although these symbols were created in order to mediate and make sense of humanity’s place in the universe, since their creation they have transformed and pervaded human cognition to such an extreme extent as to actually replace inexplicable nature of existence with a false sense of ‘rational’ reality. Symbols, now meaning speech, are a cultural phenomenon fundamental to encompassing what define civilization (Zerzan Language: 237). As much as symbols in any culture try to grapple with their reality in a complex scientific, or rational sense, due to their inherent detachment from the natural world and intrinsic reductionist nature, all attempts to find the answers of the universe, to fit harmoniously with mother earth will ultimately be at odds with what is in fact, incomprehensible. The seemingly rational is ultimately irrational. The layers of complexity now sustaining the process of symbolization account for an ongoing need to label and thus control what ultimately could never be comprehensively defined. SOURCE). An important element in this process of symbolization is the man-made conception of time. Time is one the earliest layers of symbolization’s complexity that enhanced a constructed nature of reality. John Zerzan notes that time’s fruition accounts for the need to define a sense of ‘progress’ that would dominate man’s sense of history, further alienating him away from the natural world. In a cycle of their own creation and perpetuation, the purpose of civilization has therefore, only been to reinforce itself. The perpetual construction of this notion of progress has ultimately led to the self-induced domestication of the mind, enhancing man’s estrangement from the natural (Zerzan Book: 25). Instead of surrendering to man’s harmonious connection to the inexplicable cosmos and thus accepting his own visceral nature, this false notion of progress has been perceived as an inevitable part of human development. Progress is now out of human control and thus alternative ways of existence are seen as backwards and illogical. Future Primitive: PAGE). The zenith of this sense of progress, is encompassed in the current notion of modernity as it is both the height of this civilization and yet the worst reality that the natural world has yet to endure. The sense of progress has always been subjected to the dictatorial role of arrogance and economics, what Williams calls the â€Å"inherent dominative mode of thinking†(SOURCE). Economics narrates man’s conception of property i n an alchemical mix of human labor on the earth’s soil in the pursuit of material wealth. Excessive material wealth superficially bolsters the sense of privildege, evolving to be better understood as their hubris. The Western cultural lineage that has pushed humanity ‘forward’ depends strict on this mentality, and now there exists a common belief that as Westerners works diligently towards the height of modernity, somehow other cultures in the world have become intellectually idle (Davis 2009: 166). Progress is largely perceived as a rushing current of vim and vigor, with an unstoppable momentum carrying all of us in its wake. Upon arrival in North America, with superiority imbued in their mentality, European colonialists brought a sense of progress to the New World. As both a by-product of their amalgamated colonial imagination and their equally delusional scientific minds, Canada became a laboratory to be poked, measured, defined and prepared for extraction back to continue the fervent industrialization of Europe (Rigney 1999: 109). The colonial mentality is highlighted in their sense of property. Colonialists believed that property had to be enacted; it is as much a physical reality as it is constant aspiration to control. In their minds, property is a verb that must be put to work in order to define it (Blomley: 566). You read "Language Loss" in category "Essay examples" This is in accordance of the influential perspective of John Locke, who helped to ingrain the belief that if the land was not being used, it is being wasted. Thus the divine commons was rendered private property, â€Å"Eden sank to grief† and our natural world was at the mercy of man’s endless attempt to control and accrue all that they could from their surroundings (Blomey: 561). Just as Language is a creation of the natural world, it is the architect of sustaining meaning for a culture. Therefore in its use, language is also a system of power that allows the meanings imparted by cultural hegemony to endure and endure themselves (Focault: 22). Although this cultural lineage now dominates the world’s sense of progress, not all people believe in this once sense of reality. On the margins of modernity, some people’s resilient existence stands as testimony that this one insular mode of thinking is not be the only way of being, nor is it the best way for humanity to survive (Davis: PAGE). Such people do not feel the need to subjugate and try to feebly control the wonders of the natural world, but rather their existence is at the will of what they realize they cannot control. Instead of feebly trying to control the world around them, they would rather be spiritually submerged in nature’s all-encompassing, inexplicable power (Davis: Page). The Coast Salish indigenous people that have historically dwelled in what is now defined as the city-limits of Vancouver are just one example of such a people who’s underlying purpose in life is arguably not at odds with the natural order of the universe. Coast Salish is there common name, however within this label are a number of different cultural heritages that are uniquely defined by both their geographic location and correspondingly, their language. In Vancouver’s major reservations today, such identities as the Musqueam, Squamish and the Tsleil-Waututh peoples still dwell in a miniscule enclosure of their ancient homelands. Although their lands are being encroached on from all sides, they try to uphold the ways of their ancestors as a more visceral reality, that was once so harmoniously in balance with British Columbia’s ecosystem (Baloy: 520). Because of their ancient history of being so intimately tied with their surrounding terrain, these peoples distinct cultures, embodied in their in their oral traditions and expressions of art, encapsulate their belief in humanity’s divine connection with the land. Living adjacent to the Pacific, what is mentioned in more than one of these peoples’ creation stories is the belief that the land around them sprung from the rich expanse of water on which they heavily rely (Blomey:). In stark contrast to the European’s colonial conception of the property as Terra Nullius, or that it was there for the taking. The resultant boundaries that European’s created in this region are deeply embedded cultural experiences that had specific meanings for colonist. The concept to divide territories on the ground set limits marking distinct social groups and provide a mental template for categories of control (180). In contrast, Coast Salish peoples believe that the land that they gratefully depend upon came into being for a higher purpose. It was not inanimately waiting for humans to define it or bring it to life, but rather its very existence would be what defined them. Following the creation of land from the ‘mud of the ocean,’ the Squamish Coast Salish speak of an extended period of silence that enveloped the earth, in which humans, if they existed at all, only touched lightly on the land (Hill-Tout 1978: 20). The world in their sense was pure and if humans were there, they did not leave any traces of their settlement along the coast nor did they turn on their environment to accrue a sense of history via material wealth. Their ancestors quietly followed the nomadic paths of existence, dictated by the rhythms of life (566). Territorial connections are underwritten by heir relational epistemology- a way of knowing the world through relations. Their knowledge, use, control and even ownership of the land is based on complex relationship with ancestors and spirits which go to the heart of indigenous experiences of dwelling in that place (Thom 2000: 179). Today anthropologist remark on the sophistication of the Coast Salish economy, politic al structure and way of life. Virgina Crawford attributed their civil aptitude to the security of their marine substance, as it allowed them to develop a complicated social system based on inherited or acquired clan rank (299). Although Crawford’s perspective gives credit to the Coast Salish people’s intelligence, it is expressed as both a novelty for Indigenous peoples and is tinged with Western lens of progress as if Coast Salish resource extraction was evidence to their efforts to civilize their society. Ultimately this perspective actually reduces the true intelligence of these peoples, which is beyond what Western science can coherently understand. Due to the fact that their existence is imbued with a spiritual understanding of the cosmos, every aspect of their daily lives revolves around ritual (Crawford: 299). Their devout survival is perhaps best captured in their most visible expression of culture, their art. In correlation to the Coast Salish creation story, their rich motifs are an attempt to imbue the awesome aura of the natural world into an implicit design. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. The main thrust behind the degradation of human diversity is the crude face of privilege. The sense of superiority that some cultures have over others because they see world through a monochromatic lens, and persist in interpreting what their perception through a single cultural paradigm, their own (WF-Davis: 6). Vancouver’s Indigenous Community: Squamish: History, Creation, Art, Knowledge, Colonial Encounter Colonial Encounter: Mentality, Property, Language, ProgressSignificance of Urban environment Each word of even the most remote language is the a resounding testimony of cultural identity, and serves to act as a link connecting people with their past, their social, emotion and spiritual vitality (Norris: 12). (Norris 1998: 8) means of communication, but a link which connects people with their past and grounds their social, emotional and spiritual vitality. Norris 1998: 8) Although loss of language doesn’t necessarily lead to the death of a culture, it can severely handicap transmission of that culture. Modernization vs. Language vitality Without doubt, the forces of dominant languages and modernization exert a strong influence on any minority language. In the case of Aboriginal languages, historical events such as the prohibition of indigenous language use in residential sch ools have also contributed to this process. In addition, the fact that most Aboriginal languages were predominantly oral may also have diminished, in an already difficult environment, their chances of survival. Norris 1998: 8) Facts as of 1996- The current 50 languages of Canada’s indigenous peoples belong to 11 major language families- 10 first Nation and Inuktitut. Several major dialects within them. (Norris 1998: 9) Largest Language in Canada is Algonquin- 147,000 people Geography contributes to size, distribution of Aboriginal Languages Research: M. Dale Kinkade 1991 â€Å"The Decline of Native Languages in Canada† Root of Language- Geography of Canada- Plains accommodate a large group of people. Soaring mountains and deep gorges tend to restrict settlement to small pockets of isolated groups in B. C- small languages. Salish, Tsimshian, Wakashan, Haida, Tlingit, Kutenai- could not develop as large a population as dispersed Algonquin. (Norris 1998: 9)- Isolation can also play a part (Indigenous Issue) Mother tongue population: those people who first language learned at home, and still understood is an Aboriginal Language. (Norris 1998: 10) Index of ability (Kn/MT)1: compares the number of people who report being able to speak the language as a mother tongue. If for every 100 people with a specific Aboriginal mother tongue , more than 100 person in the overall population are able to speak that language, some clearly learned it as a second language either in school or later in life. This may indicate language revival. (Norris 1998: 10) (Stat) Because unlike other minority groups, Aboriginals cannot rely on new immigrant to maintain or increase their population of speakers, passing on the language from parent to children is critical for all indigenous languages’ survival (Norris 1998: 11) (Indigenous issue) Canada’s Aboriginal languages are amongst the most endangered in the world- significant numbers of languages have either already disappeared or are close to extinction (Norris 1998: 15). Among the languages spoken today 2 out of 50 are viable with a large population base- Large or small viable languages (Norris 1998: 15) (Stat) Research: How the English Language Became the World’s Language- Robert Crum Globish. Revival- Sacred Ways of Life: Knowledge. Chelsea Crowshoe- crowshoe consulting Inc. Everyone is a community or culture, hold traditional knowledge because it is collective- WHO: defines traditional medicine- the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as the prevention diagnosis, improvement of treatment of physical and mental illness Traditional knowledge is shared through ways of exchanging cultural and traditional information such as storytelling- (Crowshoe: 2) Language and culture are the foundation of nationhood of First Nation, Inuit, and Metis people. Canada’s cultural wealth is not merely its official bilingualism- or its multicultural tapestry- Aboriginal languages re part of the our mosaic- A number o Aboriginal languages have died (WHICH ONES? ) and more are at risk- 29% of First Nations people can converse in their language- only a few are flourishing: Cree, 85,000 speakers, Ojibway, 30,000 speakers, Anishiimowin 12,5000- Montagais0Naskapi 11,000. Most Inuit can speak one of the dialects of Inuktitut but statistic Canada report a decreasing number using it as the main language at home- Michif- traditional language of the Metis These values are associated, amongst other things, with economic reductionism, mechanistic modes of thinking, aggressive individualism and the destruction of community. (Bennett 2010: 9) The residential school system, mobility and more recently, television, internet are responsible for the loss of language. Canada does well on Global Standards- All of Caribbean languages are extinct- half of the indigenous Central and South American languages- Last ten speakers of Nitinat (Ditidaht) or Comox spearks of Vancouver Island 100 Seneca Cayuga or Onodaga speakers of the nearly 4,000 in south Western Ontario Baloy, Natalie J. K. We Can’t Feel our Language: Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization Language Revitalization efforts are overwhelmingly located in rural environment despite the fact that aboriginal people are increasingly choosing to live and rasie their families in urban settings. Youth are anxious to learn language (Baloy 2011: 515) Emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people Strong Aboriginal identity and urban lifestyle are mutually exclusive Land, language and identity- how can this be fostered and nutured in urban spaces (Bayol: 516) The sduy of language ideology-has emerged as a mediating link between social structures and forms of talk. Language ideology refers to the social connection people make with the own or other’s languages, dialects of language variations. The fate of many minority language is likely determined to a large extent by ideology (Baloy 2011: 517) Language ideology- rich possibilities for understanding how people think about and value language. Identifying how language ideologies are constructed, maintained and contested can meaningfully inform strategies for language documentation, planning education and revitalization in contexts of language loss. Ideological clarification (Baloy 2011: 517) Contemporary language ideologies evolve out of historical experiences and are shaped by mainstream attitudes towards language, government policies and demographic changes (Baloy 2011: 517) Government policies perpetuated mainstream ideologies that position English as a powerful international lingua franca and aboriginal languages as outmoded. Aboriginal languages are often unrecognized, unknown, unappreciated by non-aboriginal society. Sensitive to multingualism- most highly educated and politically influential, largely ignorant of the sheer diversity and complexity, the cognitive and cultural richness of the native languages of the First Nations peoples (Baloy 2011: 517) Historical policies and processes have contributed to the devaluation of aboriginal languages in Canada- continue to resonate today. Residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, galvanizce gnificanation of aboriginal- (Baloy 2011: 517) As a result, many aboriginal parents refrained from speaking their heritage languages to their children in efforts to boost their chances for success in mainstream society- a generation of young Aboriginal children grew up monolingual in English- drop after residential schools. (Baloy 2011: 518) Angered by the loss of language, community leaders seek redress as the loss of language has become a symbol of government oppression and assimilation policies. Baloy 2011: 518) Reclamation of Native identity, pride, decolonization, assertion of sovereignty (Baloy 2011: 518) Henry Davis stated: â€Å"If you talk to anybody on the reserve, the chiefs will stand up and say two things of utmost importance: language and land† Dual significance What bout about Urban Aboriginals? (Baloy 2011: 518) Urban vs. Remote comparison, similarities, contrasts Urban Example: Vancouver Diversity of British C olumbia- Western Canada Vancouver is located in the traditional lands of the Musequea, Squamish, Tsleil-Watuth. The Katzie, Kwantlen, Sto:lo, Tswassan- recognized as local First nations. Umbrella Coast Salish- Squaimish and Musqueam have urban reserves- Musqueam’s language: Henqeminem- no fluent speakers though there are some semifluent speakers- efforts to restore and revitalize language- Squamish: Skwxwu7mesh Snichim- some fluent speakers, working toward language revival (Baloy 2011: 519) From beginning Vancouver’s development aboriginal nonlocal aboriginal people have made the city for temporary or long-term settlement. Great diversity of aboriginal people living on traditional Coast Salish homelands. Vancouver jobs, education and services. Baloy 2011: 520)There are over thirty five First nations groups represented in the city. First Nations groups are represented in the city in additional to Metis and Inuit peoples. There are now over forty thousand people who identify as aboriginal in the Metro Vancouver area. 1/5 of the total aboriginal population in the province. (Baloy 2011: 520) The number of Aboriginal people has risen in Vancouver- 30% since 1996. Aboriginal peoples living in the city continue to grow- (Baloy 2011: 520)In the early 1950’s 7% of aboriginal people in Canada lived in urban settings- Today approximately 54% of aboriginal people now living in cities. 0% in B. C Moving back and forth between city and reserve. Though many identify with a particular Native heritage and homeland, their aboriginal life is situated in city life (Baloy 2011: 520) Despite urbanization- language revitalization work has maintained mostly an on-reserve focus- reflects wider trends in social science research on aboriginal people as well as mainstream understandings of aboriginal identity (520) Cities or places that had the potential for economic development Why the city has been ignored for so long? Rural aboriginal homelands- rural bound up in colonial histories- Themes of genocide, dispossession of land, and aboriginal government relations emphasize these geo-demographic patterns Reserves are native space- Colonial practice pla ced reserves in their favor. By interrogating these processes scholars can avoid reifying colonial practices that have contributed to trop of rural aboriginal homelands. Peoples from communities across B. C and Canada have ow moved to Vancouver to live dwell on Coast Salish homelands an urban environment (524) negotiating cultural protocol in such diverse context can become somewhat impler when local people are emphaisized. Outsiders still honor the Coast Salish homelands and attempts to rvitalize language. Some people believe that the world would be a better place if we all spoke the same language. If this is true, and the world’s sole language somehow ended up being Arabic for instance, I wonder what life would be like not being able to converse with someone else in my mother tongue. My world would be inevitably enveloped in silence, I would not be able to coherently articulate stories of my heritage nor utter words that could cohesively encompass the full expression of who I am. It is undeniable that this would possibly be one of the loneliest states of existence imaginable. Unfortunately, such an unthinkable condition is in fact a stark reality for some peoples in the world. This phenomenon has mainly tightened its grasp on to weakened Indigenous communities whose dying tongues have been systematically forced to the edge of extinction on a global scale. As languages continue to disappear from the face of humanity’s cultural diversity, the need to address this issue becomes increasingly more pertinent. Unlike learning French or Spanish, within Indigenous communities, learning a language is ultimately a spiritual process. It gives peace, a sense of reality, a sense of peace. In an urban setting, learning an aboriginal language can enrich one’s links with other people from the same nation or strengthen connections to one’s aboriginal heritage on deeper personal level. Meeting these language goals requires approaches different from long-term language learning. The most intensive projects for language workers and learners aim to develop conversational, everyday use of language. (530) New words in the urban setting- like the internet, or the elevator that are not readily at hand for aboriginal peoples. This fast pace, changing the modern world is almost impossible for English to keep up with. (530) Many of their words are obsolete. Conversely, words that aboriginal langues do have in abundance, such as vocabulary related to local food procurement and specfic land features have limited relevance in the urban setting. Language is obsolete in that sense. 530) It’s now up to the community to change language to fit the city-dwellers needs. Thus making IDEOLOGICAL places for language in the city involves identifying how aboriginal languages can fit into urban people’s lives, integrating how aboriginal languages (531) What is offered in the inclusion of Native Languages in the lives of urban aboriginal people. Research participants su ggest that urban language learning can have wide-ranging effects: it can strengthen individuals bonds with their own identity and their test to homelands, community building efforts. We can’t feel our mother, we can’t feel our language. Being cut from the land they are literally cut from all meaning language. (537) Musqueam, Squamish and other local nations- resilience, connections between land, language and identity remain strong and resilient. The close connection between language and the land. Have developed by geography. Getting out in the wilderness is where language makes sense- where language is manifested. Noting that sounds emulate the land. The diversity of languages in BC- physical geography of B. C (324) How to cite Language Loss, Essay examples

Language Loss Free Essays

string(73) " a verb that must be put to work in order to define it \(Blomley: 566\)\." As we increasingly realize that our own self-destruction is inevitable in the destruction of the planet, the insular notion of Western modernity as the height of human progress is finally being questioned. However, the resultant paradox is that although we realize the resultant flaws of depending on one form of progress, the only alternatives that we could turn to are dying off of the face of the earth. Thus the global trend of language loss is an issue incredibly worthy of long overdue attention; it may in fact be our last meaningful alternative to rescue the plight of humanity’s survival. We will write a custom essay sample on Language Loss or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a repository of knowledge, an expression of culture, and a symbolic embodiment of a way of life, the loss of a language speaks for itself. Although some Aboriginal languages are on the brink of extinction in Canada, regrettably, not many people are listening to the last cries of the voices that are quickly vanishing. I will explore the reasons why this is the case. Firstly I will delve into the roots of language, as a vehicle by which the essence of each particular culture comes into coherence in the material world and how its culture’s level of conceit that sustains its insularity. The history of Western culture, as a product of European colonialism and industrial capitalism, clearly exemplifies that its essence and more importantly its arrogance, is fundamentally at odds with a harmonious relationship with the natural world, currently leading to its own detriment. With this colonial mentality in mind, a second aspect I will explore is the stark alternative to this one way of thinking that is exemplified the in the culture of the Squamish people of Vancouver. Thus thirdly, the settlement, industrialization, and current urbanization transforming Vancouver, is arguably augmenting the divide between both ways of being, perpetuating the self-destruction of all people who are at the mercy of the dominant culture’s conceit. Thus I will argue that in contrast to Vancouver’s Aboriginal people’s way of life, the current level of arrogance sustaining the dependence on Western modernity will ultimately, inevitably be the demise of humanity. It is undeniable that language, like all things that humanity has created, is ultimately an invention of natural world. As a watershed of imagination, language tries to make sense of the world and may be understood as the symbolization of the human thought in trying to grapple with the nature of existence. Although these symbols were created in order to mediate and make sense of humanity’s place in the universe, since their creation they have transformed and pervaded human cognition to such an extreme extent as to actually replace inexplicable nature of existence with a false sense of ‘rational’ reality. Symbols, now meaning speech, are a cultural phenomenon fundamental to encompassing what define civilization (Zerzan Language: 237). As much as symbols in any culture try to grapple with their reality in a complex scientific, or rational sense, due to their inherent detachment from the natural world and intrinsic reductionist nature, all attempts to find the answers of the universe, to fit harmoniously with mother earth will ultimately be at odds with what is in fact, incomprehensible. The seemingly rational is ultimately irrational. The layers of complexity now sustaining the process of symbolization account for an ongoing need to label and thus control what ultimately could never be comprehensively defined. SOURCE). An important element in this process of symbolization is the man-made conception of time. Time is one the earliest layers of symbolization’s complexity that enhanced a constructed nature of reality. John Zerzan notes that time’s fruition accounts for the need to define a sense of ‘progress’ that would dominate man’s sense of history, further alienating him away from the natural world. In a cycle of their own creation and perpetuation, the purpose of civilization has therefore, only been to reinforce itself. The perpetual construction of this notion of progress has ultimately led to the self-induced domestication of the mind, enhancing man’s estrangement from the natural (Zerzan Book: 25). Instead of surrendering to man’s harmonious connection to the inexplicable cosmos and thus accepting his own visceral nature, this false notion of progress has been perceived as an inevitable part of human development. Progress is now out of human control and thus alternative ways of existence are seen as backwards and illogical. Future Primitive: PAGE). The zenith of this sense of progress, is encompassed in the current notion of modernity as it is both the height of this civilization and yet the worst reality that the natural world has yet to endure. The sense of progress has always been subjected to the dictatorial role of arrogance and economics, what Williams calls the â€Å"inherent dominative mode of thinking†(SOURCE). Economics narrates man’s conception of property i n an alchemical mix of human labor on the earth’s soil in the pursuit of material wealth. Excessive material wealth superficially bolsters the sense of privildege, evolving to be better understood as their hubris. The Western cultural lineage that has pushed humanity ‘forward’ depends strict on this mentality, and now there exists a common belief that as Westerners works diligently towards the height of modernity, somehow other cultures in the world have become intellectually idle (Davis 2009: 166). Progress is largely perceived as a rushing current of vim and vigor, with an unstoppable momentum carrying all of us in its wake. Upon arrival in North America, with superiority imbued in their mentality, European colonialists brought a sense of progress to the New World. As both a by-product of their amalgamated colonial imagination and their equally delusional scientific minds, Canada became a laboratory to be poked, measured, defined and prepared for extraction back to continue the fervent industrialization of Europe (Rigney 1999: 109). The colonial mentality is highlighted in their sense of property. Colonialists believed that property had to be enacted; it is as much a physical reality as it is constant aspiration to control. In their minds, property is a verb that must be put to work in order to define it (Blomley: 566). You read "Language Loss" in category "Essay examples" This is in accordance of the influential perspective of John Locke, who helped to ingrain the belief that if the land was not being used, it is being wasted. Thus the divine commons was rendered private property, â€Å"Eden sank to grief† and our natural world was at the mercy of man’s endless attempt to control and accrue all that they could from their surroundings (Blomey: 561). Just as Language is a creation of the natural world, it is the architect of sustaining meaning for a culture. Therefore in its use, language is also a system of power that allows the meanings imparted by cultural hegemony to endure and endure themselves (Focault: 22). Although this cultural lineage now dominates the world’s sense of progress, not all people believe in this once sense of reality. On the margins of modernity, some people’s resilient existence stands as testimony that this one insular mode of thinking is not be the only way of being, nor is it the best way for humanity to survive (Davis: PAGE). Such people do not feel the need to subjugate and try to feebly control the wonders of the natural world, but rather their existence is at the will of what they realize they cannot control. Instead of feebly trying to control the world around them, they would rather be spiritually submerged in nature’s all-encompassing, inexplicable power (Davis: Page). The Coast Salish indigenous people that have historically dwelled in what is now defined as the city-limits of Vancouver are just one example of such a people who’s underlying purpose in life is arguably not at odds with the natural order of the universe. Coast Salish is there common name, however within this label are a number of different cultural heritages that are uniquely defined by both their geographic location and correspondingly, their language. In Vancouver’s major reservations today, such identities as the Musqueam, Squamish and the Tsleil-Waututh peoples still dwell in a miniscule enclosure of their ancient homelands. Although their lands are being encroached on from all sides, they try to uphold the ways of their ancestors as a more visceral reality, that was once so harmoniously in balance with British Columbia’s ecosystem (Baloy: 520). Because of their ancient history of being so intimately tied with their surrounding terrain, these peoples distinct cultures, embodied in their in their oral traditions and expressions of art, encapsulate their belief in humanity’s divine connection with the land. Living adjacent to the Pacific, what is mentioned in more than one of these peoples’ creation stories is the belief that the land around them sprung from the rich expanse of water on which they heavily rely (Blomey:). In stark contrast to the European’s colonial conception of the property as Terra Nullius, or that it was there for the taking. The resultant boundaries that European’s created in this region are deeply embedded cultural experiences that had specific meanings for colonist. The concept to divide territories on the ground set limits marking distinct social groups and provide a mental template for categories of control (180). In contrast, Coast Salish peoples believe that the land that they gratefully depend upon came into being for a higher purpose. It was not inanimately waiting for humans to define it or bring it to life, but rather its very existence would be what defined them. Following the creation of land from the ‘mud of the ocean,’ the Squamish Coast Salish speak of an extended period of silence that enveloped the earth, in which humans, if they existed at all, only touched lightly on the land (Hill-Tout 1978: 20). The world in their sense was pure and if humans were there, they did not leave any traces of their settlement along the coast nor did they turn on their environment to accrue a sense of history via material wealth. Their ancestors quietly followed the nomadic paths of existence, dictated by the rhythms of life (566). Territorial connections are underwritten by heir relational epistemology- a way of knowing the world through relations. Their knowledge, use, control and even ownership of the land is based on complex relationship with ancestors and spirits which go to the heart of indigenous experiences of dwelling in that place (Thom 2000: 179). Today anthropologist remark on the sophistication of the Coast Salish economy, politic al structure and way of life. Virgina Crawford attributed their civil aptitude to the security of their marine substance, as it allowed them to develop a complicated social system based on inherited or acquired clan rank (299). Although Crawford’s perspective gives credit to the Coast Salish people’s intelligence, it is expressed as both a novelty for Indigenous peoples and is tinged with Western lens of progress as if Coast Salish resource extraction was evidence to their efforts to civilize their society. Ultimately this perspective actually reduces the true intelligence of these peoples, which is beyond what Western science can coherently understand. Due to the fact that their existence is imbued with a spiritual understanding of the cosmos, every aspect of their daily lives revolves around ritual (Crawford: 299). Their devout survival is perhaps best captured in their most visible expression of culture, their art. In correlation to the Coast Salish creation story, their rich motifs are an attempt to imbue the awesome aura of the natural world into an implicit design. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. The main thrust behind the degradation of human diversity is the crude face of privilege. The sense of superiority that some cultures have over others because they see world through a monochromatic lens, and persist in interpreting what their perception through a single cultural paradigm, their own (WF-Davis: 6). Vancouver’s Indigenous Community: Squamish: History, Creation, Art, Knowledge, Colonial Encounter Colonial Encounter: Mentality, Property, Language, ProgressSignificance of Urban environment Each word of even the most remote language is the a resounding testimony of cultural identity, and serves to act as a link connecting people with their past, their social, emotion and spiritual vitality (Norris: 12). (Norris 1998: 8) means of communication, but a link which connects people with their past and grounds their social, emotional and spiritual vitality. Norris 1998: 8) Although loss of language doesn’t necessarily lead to the death of a culture, it can severely handicap transmission of that culture. Modernization vs. Language vitality Without doubt, the forces of dominant languages and modernization exert a strong influence on any minority language. In the case of Aboriginal languages, historical events such as the prohibition of indigenous language use in residential sch ools have also contributed to this process. In addition, the fact that most Aboriginal languages were predominantly oral may also have diminished, in an already difficult environment, their chances of survival. Norris 1998: 8) Facts as of 1996- The current 50 languages of Canada’s indigenous peoples belong to 11 major language families- 10 first Nation and Inuktitut. Several major dialects within them. (Norris 1998: 9) Largest Language in Canada is Algonquin- 147,000 people Geography contributes to size, distribution of Aboriginal Languages Research: M. Dale Kinkade 1991 â€Å"The Decline of Native Languages in Canada† Root of Language- Geography of Canada- Plains accommodate a large group of people. Soaring mountains and deep gorges tend to restrict settlement to small pockets of isolated groups in B. C- small languages. Salish, Tsimshian, Wakashan, Haida, Tlingit, Kutenai- could not develop as large a population as dispersed Algonquin. (Norris 1998: 9)- Isolation can also play a part (Indigenous Issue) Mother tongue population: those people who first language learned at home, and still understood is an Aboriginal Language. (Norris 1998: 10) Index of ability (Kn/MT)1: compares the number of people who report being able to speak the language as a mother tongue. If for every 100 people with a specific Aboriginal mother tongue , more than 100 person in the overall population are able to speak that language, some clearly learned it as a second language either in school or later in life. This may indicate language revival. (Norris 1998: 10) (Stat) Because unlike other minority groups, Aboriginals cannot rely on new immigrant to maintain or increase their population of speakers, passing on the language from parent to children is critical for all indigenous languages’ survival (Norris 1998: 11) (Indigenous issue) Canada’s Aboriginal languages are amongst the most endangered in the world- significant numbers of languages have either already disappeared or are close to extinction (Norris 1998: 15). Among the languages spoken today 2 out of 50 are viable with a large population base- Large or small viable languages (Norris 1998: 15) (Stat) Research: How the English Language Became the World’s Language- Robert Crum Globish. Revival- Sacred Ways of Life: Knowledge. Chelsea Crowshoe- crowshoe consulting Inc. Everyone is a community or culture, hold traditional knowledge because it is collective- WHO: defines traditional medicine- the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as the prevention diagnosis, improvement of treatment of physical and mental illness Traditional knowledge is shared through ways of exchanging cultural and traditional information such as storytelling- (Crowshoe: 2) Language and culture are the foundation of nationhood of First Nation, Inuit, and Metis people. Canada’s cultural wealth is not merely its official bilingualism- or its multicultural tapestry- Aboriginal languages re part of the our mosaic- A number o Aboriginal languages have died (WHICH ONES? ) and more are at risk- 29% of First Nations people can converse in their language- only a few are flourishing: Cree, 85,000 speakers, Ojibway, 30,000 speakers, Anishiimowin 12,5000- Montagais0Naskapi 11,000. Most Inuit can speak one of the dialects of Inuktitut but statistic Canada report a decreasing number using it as the main language at home- Michif- traditional language of the Metis These values are associated, amongst other things, with economic reductionism, mechanistic modes of thinking, aggressive individualism and the destruction of community. (Bennett 2010: 9) The residential school system, mobility and more recently, television, internet are responsible for the loss of language. Canada does well on Global Standards- All of Caribbean languages are extinct- half of the indigenous Central and South American languages- Last ten speakers of Nitinat (Ditidaht) or Comox spearks of Vancouver Island 100 Seneca Cayuga or Onodaga speakers of the nearly 4,000 in south Western Ontario Baloy, Natalie J. K. We Can’t Feel our Language: Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization Language Revitalization efforts are overwhelmingly located in rural environment despite the fact that aboriginal people are increasingly choosing to live and rasie their families in urban settings. Youth are anxious to learn language (Baloy 2011: 515) Emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people Strong Aboriginal identity and urban lifestyle are mutually exclusive Land, language and identity- how can this be fostered and nutured in urban spaces (Bayol: 516) The sduy of language ideology-has emerged as a mediating link between social structures and forms of talk. Language ideology refers to the social connection people make with the own or other’s languages, dialects of language variations. The fate of many minority language is likely determined to a large extent by ideology (Baloy 2011: 517) Language ideology- rich possibilities for understanding how people think about and value language. Identifying how language ideologies are constructed, maintained and contested can meaningfully inform strategies for language documentation, planning education and revitalization in contexts of language loss. Ideological clarification (Baloy 2011: 517) Contemporary language ideologies evolve out of historical experiences and are shaped by mainstream attitudes towards language, government policies and demographic changes (Baloy 2011: 517) Government policies perpetuated mainstream ideologies that position English as a powerful international lingua franca and aboriginal languages as outmoded. Aboriginal languages are often unrecognized, unknown, unappreciated by non-aboriginal society. Sensitive to multingualism- most highly educated and politically influential, largely ignorant of the sheer diversity and complexity, the cognitive and cultural richness of the native languages of the First Nations peoples (Baloy 2011: 517) Historical policies and processes have contributed to the devaluation of aboriginal languages in Canada- continue to resonate today. Residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, galvanizce gnificanation of aboriginal- (Baloy 2011: 517) As a result, many aboriginal parents refrained from speaking their heritage languages to their children in efforts to boost their chances for success in mainstream society- a generation of young Aboriginal children grew up monolingual in English- drop after residential schools. (Baloy 2011: 518) Angered by the loss of language, community leaders seek redress as the loss of language has become a symbol of government oppression and assimilation policies. Baloy 2011: 518) Reclamation of Native identity, pride, decolonization, assertion of sovereignty (Baloy 2011: 518) Henry Davis stated: â€Å"If you talk to anybody on the reserve, the chiefs will stand up and say two things of utmost importance: language and land† Dual significance What bout about Urban Aboriginals? (Baloy 2011: 518) Urban vs. Remote comparison, similarities, contrasts Urban Example: Vancouver Diversity of British C olumbia- Western Canada Vancouver is located in the traditional lands of the Musequea, Squamish, Tsleil-Watuth. The Katzie, Kwantlen, Sto:lo, Tswassan- recognized as local First nations. Umbrella Coast Salish- Squaimish and Musqueam have urban reserves- Musqueam’s language: Henqeminem- no fluent speakers though there are some semifluent speakers- efforts to restore and revitalize language- Squamish: Skwxwu7mesh Snichim- some fluent speakers, working toward language revival (Baloy 2011: 519) From beginning Vancouver’s development aboriginal nonlocal aboriginal people have made the city for temporary or long-term settlement. Great diversity of aboriginal people living on traditional Coast Salish homelands. Vancouver jobs, education and services. Baloy 2011: 520)There are over thirty five First nations groups represented in the city. First Nations groups are represented in the city in additional to Metis and Inuit peoples. There are now over forty thousand people who identify as aboriginal in the Metro Vancouver area. 1/5 of the total aboriginal population in the province. (Baloy 2011: 520) The number of Aboriginal people has risen in Vancouver- 30% since 1996. Aboriginal peoples living in the city continue to grow- (Baloy 2011: 520)In the early 1950’s 7% of aboriginal people in Canada lived in urban settings- Today approximately 54% of aboriginal people now living in cities. 0% in B. C Moving back and forth between city and reserve. Though many identify with a particular Native heritage and homeland, their aboriginal life is situated in city life (Baloy 2011: 520) Despite urbanization- language revitalization work has maintained mostly an on-reserve focus- reflects wider trends in social science research on aboriginal people as well as mainstream understandings of aboriginal identity (520) Cities or places that had the potential for economic development Why the city has been ignored for so long? Rural aboriginal homelands- rural bound up in colonial histories- Themes of genocide, dispossession of land, and aboriginal government relations emphasize these geo-demographic patterns Reserves are native space- Colonial practice pla ced reserves in their favor. By interrogating these processes scholars can avoid reifying colonial practices that have contributed to trop of rural aboriginal homelands. Peoples from communities across B. C and Canada have ow moved to Vancouver to live dwell on Coast Salish homelands an urban environment (524) negotiating cultural protocol in such diverse context can become somewhat impler when local people are emphaisized. Outsiders still honor the Coast Salish homelands and attempts to rvitalize language. Some people believe that the world would be a better place if we all spoke the same language. If this is true, and the world’s sole language somehow ended up being Arabic for instance, I wonder what life would be like not being able to converse with someone else in my mother tongue. My world would be inevitably enveloped in silence, I would not be able to coherently articulate stories of my heritage nor utter words that could cohesively encompass the full expression of who I am. It is undeniable that this would possibly be one of the loneliest states of existence imaginable. Unfortunately, such an unthinkable condition is in fact a stark reality for some peoples in the world. This phenomenon has mainly tightened its grasp on to weakened Indigenous communities whose dying tongues have been systematically forced to the edge of extinction on a global scale. As languages continue to disappear from the face of humanity’s cultural diversity, the need to address this issue becomes increasingly more pertinent. Unlike learning French or Spanish, within Indigenous communities, learning a language is ultimately a spiritual process. It gives peace, a sense of reality, a sense of peace. In an urban setting, learning an aboriginal language can enrich one’s links with other people from the same nation or strengthen connections to one’s aboriginal heritage on deeper personal level. Meeting these language goals requires approaches different from long-term language learning. The most intensive projects for language workers and learners aim to develop conversational, everyday use of language. (530) New words in the urban setting- like the internet, or the elevator that are not readily at hand for aboriginal peoples. This fast pace, changing the modern world is almost impossible for English to keep up with. (530) Many of their words are obsolete. Conversely, words that aboriginal langues do have in abundance, such as vocabulary related to local food procurement and specfic land features have limited relevance in the urban setting. Language is obsolete in that sense. 530) It’s now up to the community to change language to fit the city-dwellers needs. Thus making IDEOLOGICAL places for language in the city involves identifying how aboriginal languages can fit into urban people’s lives, integrating how aboriginal languages (531) What is offered in the inclusion of Native Languages in the lives of urban aboriginal people. Research participants su ggest that urban language learning can have wide-ranging effects: it can strengthen individuals bonds with their own identity and their test to homelands, community building efforts. We can’t feel our mother, we can’t feel our language. Being cut from the land they are literally cut from all meaning language. (537) Musqueam, Squamish and other local nations- resilience, connections between land, language and identity remain strong and resilient. The close connection between language and the land. Have developed by geography. Getting out in the wilderness is where language makes sense- where language is manifested. Noting that sounds emulate the land. The diversity of languages in BC- physical geography of B. C (324) How to cite Language Loss, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Case for Capital Punishmen Essay Example For Students

The Case for Capital Punishmen Essay Society, in general, agrees that the taking of an innocent life is an unforgivable act, and that the rape of children is particularly heinous. I will argue that all persons convicted of the crime of murder or the rape of a child under ten years of age should be given a manditory death penalty. Capital punishment is not only justifiable but is morally correct and should be the mandatory sentence for such crimes once an individual is found guilty. It would be neither unjust nor immoral to execute such an individual. It is not logical or rational to believe that a person raised in our society does not know that the crimes of murder or the rape of a child will not be tolerated. Regardless of an individuals background or socio-economic status, individual choices lead to results that carry personal responsibility. It is inappropriate to make excuses for these criminals simply because they were not reared in well-to-do circumstances. neglected, or perhaps suffered abuse as a child. None of these forced them to make the choice to commit the crime. As stated by Ernest van den Haag, by committing the crime, the criminal volunteered to assume the risk. (1)If an individual commits the crime of murder, or rapes a child, that person has forfeited any moral right to continue to live, even if imprisoned for life. Their victim had no choice and no chance to live a fruitful, productive life. Why should society be required to pay the costs associated with imprisonment? A society, which values the lives of its citizens, has the right to exercise capital punishment for those who have been convicted after due process of law. The U.S. Constitution provides for punishment of capital crimes so there is certainly no trouble with it in the law. However, some of the most impassioned arguments against capital punishment are the possibility of convicting the wrong person, and discriminatory application of the law. Abolitionists also argue that we should base on justice system on reform and rehabilitation. First, the possibility of convicting an innocent person is often cited as an argument that the death penalty is unjust. One Internet source indicates that 350 people were wrongly convicted of homicide or capital rape from 1900- 1985. (2) (It should be noted that the article does not specify how many of these individuals were later released.) In our text, Ernest van den Haag refers to a study conducted by Hugo Bedau that found that of 7000 executions during that same period, only 25 were purportedly innocent. (Ibid. p.286) The execution of an innocent person appears much less a risk than the risk that a person guilty of this type of violence would repeat the crime. Criminals kill people knowing that they will live and either spend the rest of their lives in prison or get out in 10 to 20 years. Consistent application of the capital punishment laws would have a deterrent effect on some potential murderers if not all. While states that do carry death penalty provisions s ignificantly outnumber those that do not, there appears to be a certain reluctance to apply the laws. As a result, many violent criminals no longer fear the court system. Further, capital punishment laws have undergone many decades of review by the highest courts in the country and are anything but capriciously imposed. A further argument against the innocent are convicted is found in a review of the extensive appeal system that has been mandated by the courts that may take as much as fourteen years to complete. Even if this were a legitimate concern, the chances of an innocent person being wrongly convicted are very slim. The second argument, discriminatory application holds that a disproportional number of non-whites receive the death penalty upon conviction, in particular, a black convicted of murdering a white. This is really an argument against a flawed justice system that favors one class of citizens over another. Unequal distribution among the guilty is irrelevant to the mora lity of the punishment. The system is far from perfect but can be improved. 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Friday, March 20, 2020

YOU CANNOT FORCE LIKE

YOU CANNOT FORCE LIKE I wrote a blog post recently about how readers can help authors on Amazon. You are reading my blog, right? http://chopeclark.com/2012/09/when-you-go-to-amazon-dont-just-buy-a-book/ One of the suggestions involved clicking the little orange and white thumbs-up hand so that it turns gray, liking the book page, or the author page. Its a simple gesture to tell the author youve been there and appreciate what they are doing. Those types of likes are easy and have become more etiquette that critical in nature. Some likes, however, arent so clean and simple. For example, people liking your book, blog, articles, or even your Facebook notes. Someone out there is going to disagree about whether your are talented. While many of my readers loved to hate Alan, a character in Lowcountry Bribe, one painted him as too shallow and one-dimensional. So guess what I agonized over for a day or two? Then theres the other side of the coin, when you dont like others work. I belong to two writers groups. Eventually, a member introduces a piece I just cannot connect with. Maybe its the genre, the plot, even the dialogue, but it does not click. Sometimes the clash is such that I really dont want to critique it, knowing Ill be frustrated having to trudge through it and come out on the other end not having enjoyed the trip. For instance, someone Facebook messaged me a couple weeks ago, proud about his book release. I congratulated him. He then asked, Will you buy it? I glanced at the title, then the Amazon page. It was a how-to improve your life message. I replied that I was swamped with books to read at present with 30 on my nightstand and who-knows-how-many on my Kindle. He replied, Will you read it in a few weeks? I finally replied, Sorry. Im in a good place with my life, so I dont need self-help material. It just wasnt something I wanted to read. Then theres the bestseller list that everyone oohs and aahs over. I dont like many of them. As blasphemous as it may sound, I do not like to read Barbara Kingsolver. I do not think shell lose sleep over that, either. My moneys on the probability that she doesnt like my work either. Sometimes readers will buy a bestseller thinking its properly vetted and is a one-size-fits-all good read. Bestsellers are no different than the other books in the world when it comes to fans and non-fans. Nobody can write for all readers. Granted, that celebrity frenzy and strong word-of-mouth drive can sell a lot of books. And finally, you do not have to like all the classics. I love mysteries. Ill read Poe and Doyle. But when I finally find thetime to sit down with a book, to sip tea and relax at the end of my day, I want a story that carries me away. War and Peace aint gonna do it for me. Do not be afraid to dislike writing. At the same time, do not take it personally when someone dislikes yours. Avoid callingthem names and wishing ill-harm to their families. We cant read or like all books. What a boring world that would be . . . without diversity . . . without the effort of discovery . . . without the free rein to seek and find the authors that reallymake us happy to jump into a story.